How the Role of the Manager Has Evolved Over the Centuries – Business Bankruptcy Lists

  • Three generations within a work dwelling can work to the advantage of all fervent.
  • The two different types of workers can mesh, there by creating new skills and a learning environmen.
  • The economy drives the enviroment of the workplace.



The mentality of the post-industrial manager in the 21st century compared to that of industrial manager is in stark contrast the inequity between light and dark, day and night. The industrial mindset was that the managed labor was used as machine whereas today the managed labor use machines to enhance their productivity whether blue or white collar. Workers today are seen as a necessary commodity to fuel the workplace and are extremely valuable assets to the organization. There has been a shift in the mentality regarding the relationship among members of the organizations, leaders and the roles that each of these key players have in today’s’ business world. The changes in technology combined with the changes in the corporate environment mandate that those who wish to survive as well as those who wish to excel keep their skills and knowledge at optimal levels to remain competitive. At the same time, all of the roles of these key players are interconnected and must work within a framework that promotes harmony, productivity, efficiency and effectiveness as leaders in order for the organization to succeed and remain competitive. As an element of that level of performance, one must exhaust every available resource and tap into ones’ emotional intelligence to make the best decisions and to act upon them accordingly benefit. This paper represents the summary of the many concepts covered throughout this class and the action plan that will be ragged in the workplace and toward completion of the DM program. 

Members Of Organizations 

To add to the complexity of the change in societal norms, advanced technology and the slump in the job market, today’s organizations are additionally more complex in that there are three generations within the work status which represent three different sets of value systems, perspectives and societal norms that one may resolve to guide his or her life by. The value systems of these employees directly affect their morals and work ethics, and the ethical aspect of their influence upon co-workers within the organizational environment and have an influence upon the success and growth of the organization. 

Within an organization, there are two different types of workers. There are knowledge workers, which are considered a newly emergency type worker in the post-industrial era, and or learning workers (Jacques, 1996, p. 143). According to Jacques, the knowledge worker has been present all along however more emphasis is put on this focus due to “the confluence of certain socio-economic accidents such as new technologies, redefined market boundaries, global redistribution of classes of work and so forth, which place this worker at the confluence of critical relations of power,” (Jacques, 1996, p. 145). Viewing this theory and examining new day organizations, those workers that have niche knowledge and areas of expertise are desirable commodities. Jacques states that in today’s environment value is not readily placed on the importance of worker knowledge as much as it is the kind of knowledge one has. I agree with Jacques in section because of the age of technology and its’ importance in our society. Having acquired knowledge is certainly commendable however; acquiring knowledge that is valuable and that allows one to contribute, grow and succeed is a different story. Having knowledge and not using the knowledge is equivalent to not having knowledge at all. I also feel in today’s work environment there must be a combination of learner and knowledge workers to develop balance and harmony within the organization. There are going to be some businesses that require one type of worker more so than the other, however if a manager or leader can influence an employee to get involved, then this involvement can form higher learning and a new skill set which is beneficial to the entire organization. Jacques makes an important point in his work where he states, “for three generations, systems have been refined to produce worker knowledge leading to compliance with decisions made by a specialized subgroup of employees (management). Increasingly, post-industrial organizations are seeking systems producing worker knowledge leading to initiative. This is not simply a different goal; it is one that conflicts with every element of disciplinary work practices.” I interpret this to say that we as leaders have to move past management making all the decisions. We have to involve the employees and empower them in the process so that they will take ownership in the organization, which also creates a degree of loyalty. 

After having assessed my EQ with the EQ Map in Executive EQ Emotional Intelligence in Leadership & Organizations (Cooper & Sawaf, 1996, p.273) the realization of being authentic and in tuned with oneself is very important. This same thought applies to members of the organization and if given the opportunity to be awareness of the strengths and weaknesses, the organization and its members could serve to benefit from this self-awareness. 

Organizational Roles 

AMR has recently attempted to create a role changing strategy among all members of the organization. After reaching close to financial destruction and a change of leadership, the realization is present among senior, middle and lower management that it is going to consume a complete team effort to achieve American Airlines from financial ruin and bankruptcy. The idea is to try to bag all members of the organization to accept ownership and to approach each and every action within the company in the mindset of owner. Those in upper management must collect responsibility for encouraging involvement, ownership and accountability to get the organization and its members in agreement on the reach to saving the company from financial ruin. 

Within the hierarchy of most organizations lie several roles, which keep the organization operating like a finely tuned machine. There are leaders, managers, subordinates, co-workers, advocates, as well as support staff. The design for each role is usually dictated based on the needs of the organization. Each role is unique in its’ contribution to the organization however in lean times such as these the shift has been made from manager subordinate to co-owners in order to survive as an organization. In the immediate area of AMR that I am a part of, a conscious pain has been made at merging roles by way of cross training. This process adds to the skill set of employees as well as helps the company financially in terms of having worthy people trained in niche areas. Even as a manager, I have been trained to veil the job responsibilities of the person that I report to. Because of this training, I have been offered several opportunities, which I chose to decline due to my current commitments. The fact remains however by being prepared to gather the responsibilities the opportunities presented themselves and I was a viable candidate for advancement.

Teamwork and Persuasion 

Within the construct of the Doctoral of Management program lays a team-based concept geared toward success and support in synthesizing the academic content as well as the completion of the program. This design is instrumental in accomplishing academic assignments, projects and tasks; it also serves as a means of support as well for such an arduous, regimented and fast paced program. Advantages to being a part of a team weigh heavily with regard to support, varied perspectives, different areas of expertise and experience, knowledge, and diversity. When one team member is down, the other team members are consulted, and serve as advisors and a sounding board to attend the other member reach resolve. This is one of the strongest concepts of the team-based structure. Though we all do individual contributions, the way we are perceived and well-liked by our team members does matter. In Post-Industrial Lives (Hage and Powers, 1992, p. 70) the authors quote Mead as having stated that the true post-industrial mind must have the capacity to imagine scenarios that have not occurred, to envision original ways in which relationships and patterns of social organizations can be restructured.” This is true when working as an individual as a allotment of a group in order to create new ideas and new knowledge, which is the goal of the doctoral student. The concepts that I have learned in this program are now being utilized in my personal and professional life. In the work place, team-building is a great source of building unity among members of an industry that has slowly crumbled from the events of September 11th, 2001.

Action Plan 

Very specific actions will be taken personally, academically and professionally toward the manager near within the organization as it relates to team, co-worker and organizational action. The following opinion will be worn as a guideline with constant improvements to be made as ideas are accepted and as knowledge broadens throughout the completion of the DM program and the application of ideas learned through the courses.
I. Team Action Plan
a. Establish team respect and guidelines.
b. Preserve an open line of communication with team members.
c. Maintain organizational and time management skills that are respectful of all team members.
d. Emphasize the importance of team meetings and discussions.

II. Co-worker Action Conception
a. Share modern knowledge with co-workers.
b. Be initiate to receive others ideas and introduce new concepts.
c. Always respect everyone’s’ learning styles as everyone learns in different ways (visual learners, auditory learners, etc.).
d. Have brainstorming sessions with coworkers as a map of creating new knowledge and solving existing problems.

III. Organization Action Plan
a. Refer encourage to the EQ plot as a means of growth in the organization.
b. Introduce the EQ map to upper management as a means of improving self-awareness in the organization.
c. Obtain awareness of the value of knowledge and learner workers allowing each to contribute their maximum to the organization based on their personal skill-set.
d. Offer opportunities for workers to diversify their skills by exposure to new ideas and concepts. 


Ultimately involvement by all members of organizations is the catalyst to change, success and empowerment. From the standpoint of co-workers, team members and from an organizational standpoint, high involvement is what must prevail. According to Levine, a checklist can be followed to insure that organizations are putting forth an danger to achieve high involvement. One, employees must be empowered through either stutter or representative participation. Secondly, employees must be motivated by way of either rewards, pay for skill, reducing differences, and employment security or guaranteed rights (Levine, 1995, p. 178). Thirdly, the ability to participate must be present. According to the Levine, this vehicle would be by means of training and sharing information. Fourth, there is Management Support, which is very important. Levine lists several other methods, which include Union Support for organizations that have unions, Business Partner Support and Strategic Integration (1995, p. 180). Whichever contrivance organization chooses to exhaust, or whichever is more applicable, the main goal is to achieve a highly enthusiastic work group. These same concepts can be applied to ones’ personal, professional and academic goals. The goal of this learning experience, the involvement in the DM Program and in business is to have the experience and growth and to evolve from the creation of unusual ideas and knowledge.


Cooper, R. K., & Sawaf, A. (1996). Executive eq: Emotional intelligence in leadership & organizations. New York: Grossett/Putnam. 

Hage, J. & Powers, C. H. (1992). Post-Industrial lives roles and relationships in the 21st century. Newbury Park: Sage Publications. 

Jacques, R. (1996). Manufacturing the employee: Management knowledge from the 19th to the 21st centuries. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. 

Levine, D. I. (1995). Reinventing the workplace: How business and employees can both win. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

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