U.s. History Notes And Reviews From The Beginning- 1877 – Regions Bank Foreclosure List

History 2300 Notes for Test 1

9/1 Rise of the Atlantic World: exploration, exploitation, and conquest

New Hampshire- supply wood to English navy

Africa is the loser because of technology; complete disruption of culture-a lot of infants and old people

Slave trade happens bc of need for labor, new crops, etc.

Few convicts that actually came to North America; Virginia full of indentured servants

Africa, Europe, Fresh World (Americas)

Europe dreamed of the far east—gold and riches

China—pepper, cinnamon-both preservatives to hide the taste of spoiling food

Wanted to find route to China and India-jewels, sapphires, riches

Northwest Passage- to China and India- magic route to riches

Previsions, bilge, people crammed in the ships

Scurvy-vitamin deficiency in which teeth fall out, gums swell up and joints seize up

Columbus was an Italian ship captain, son of a weaver who found Hispaniola- his trip funded by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492

People began claiming land for strategic purposes

Exploring Atlantic World

  • 1400 Ad shift of European power and wealth to Northern kingdoms
  • Maritime technical developments
  • Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal sailed Horn of Africa in 1488
  • Contest for Atlantic and the “players”
  • 1492 Spain and Columbus
  • 1497 England and John Cabot to try and find Northwest Passage
  • Magellan and circumnavigation
  • Cartier, La Salle, Cortez
  • England, France, and Netherlands—all economic powerhouses

Guns, Germs and Steel

  • Columbian or Ecological exchange—two cultures first come in contact
  • Bartholomew de las Casas—”The Devastation of the Indies” (1552) Spanish priest convert Indians to Christianity and then gain them to work
  • Black Legend—English name for beating and working the Indians to death
  • “Beneficiaries of catastrophe” The Europeans; did not have to set out to destroy
  • Monoculture- one crop
  • Plantation system- sugar, indigo, rice, tobacco is brown gold
  • Chattel slavery- life long slave, inheritable by slave children, results in social death meaning birth is not recorded, no one cares, no rights
  • Atlantic World

Caribbean slavery is more brutal, nothing to stop it, far away from home and isolated

Contingency-human decisions

Inevitability- when it starts, happens then it is inevitable

Mediterranean means the center of the world

Columbian or Ecological Exchange

To Customary World To Unique World

Beans Apple

Sweet Potato, White Potato Sugarcane

Tobacco (plantation crop) Cabbage

Corn (maize) Carrot

Tomato Celery

Bell and hot peppers Eggplant

Blueberries, cranberries Grapefruit, lemon,

Peach, plum

9/6 Spanish and Portuguese Empires- 16th century; English and French recount these empires as brutal


in the Atlantic World

  • Motives- begin markets, find good and resources. Rep the fabled Northwest Passage to Asia
  • Method- Technology for long sea voyages

Lateen (triangular) sail- Arabia

Movable rigging- tipping sails to catch wind- east Africa

  • Military technology superior to others met in the Atlantic Basin such as the Americas, Africa, and Caribbean

“Beneficiaries of Catastrophe”

  • Disease and conquest; Not “germ warfare” but a product of bring viruses and “germs” into an isolated environment
  • Technology and conquest
  • Virgin soil epidemics—90% fatalities

Influenza- death within 24 hours, measles, chicken pox, and pneumonia- primary killer up until WW2

Germs have never been exposed to population so most of population is wiped out

Biggest killers for children- pneumonia and fireplaces

Befriend then there was no electricity, running water, engines, tractors, dentistry, or toilets

  • More about Virgin soil epidemics

1) By 1700 only 10% of original population of the Americas survives

2) 1518 smallpox devastated Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Cuba

3) By 1520 smallpox reaches Mexico, 1525 Ecuador, 1528 Peru and Bolivia

4) 1590-1620 smallpox and influenza on the New England coast

5) “Smallpox” a risk to all- but devastating in the Americas- causes extreme dehydration

The Conquest of the Aztec Empire

  • Aztec- mighty, extensive, doing people a favor, militaristic, determines plot, armor
  • 1519 Cortez to (Mexico) Tenochtitlan
  • 300K Urban complex with aqueducts, pyramids, central government, mathematics, etc.
  • Religion- “Heathens” and human sacrifice
  • Aztec empire spread through region by brutal conquest and subjugation
  • European technological superiority
  • The pattern of conquest in the Modern World:

1) Guns, germs, and steel

2) “beneficiaries of catastrophe”

  • Tenochtitlan ruins in Recent Mexico City

Aztec Cultural World

  • Spanish recorded rituals encountered most particularly “human sacrifice”
  • Human flesh for ritual purpose

1) Honored dead transmits characteristics

2) Subjugation of conquered peoples

3) Horror of non-Christian practices for explorers

4) Priests as intermediaries between Gods and men

  • Wall of Skulls in Tenochtitlan- intimidates people

Human Sacrifice

  • Ritual, Victims, and Methods

1) War captives and ritual; most common

2) Method- often people drugged, dragged up pyramids, hung

3) “eagle men” human sacrificesàsail to God; ripped heart out and kicked them down the pyramid

4) Captor and relatives-honor- they took the body away, butchered the person, and made a human meat, beans, and corn soup; they ate a microscopic amount and was more for ritual than anything

How were such a people conquered?

  • Divisions in region between Aztecs and their conquered peoples
  • Guns and steel- technological advantage, horses and mobility and speed, guns and armor, depopulation through disease depletes adults able to fight
  • Encomienda system and conquistadors- military men to force

Recap: Europe in Atlantic World

  • Result: the discovery, conquest, and settlement of the “New World” by Europe
  • Destruction of west African civilizations

Long term changes in World History

  • Development of plantation agriculture
  • Development of chattel slavery
  • Creation of overseas empires for economic and strategic purposes

Beginnings of a Permanent Presence

How to gain economic befriend from new lands?

  • Markets: what can be exported? Until settler colonies: ships and supplies; After settler colonies: luxuries
  • Resources: what can be extracted? Raw materials- timber and minerals agricultural: sugar, tobacco, indigo, rice- territory means power
  • Financial: raw materials and agriculture
  • Strategic: shipping and military base

How to find labor?

  • Ships: shares of profit to crews
  • Plantations: offer land to adventurous subjects; to military men ending service

Answer to Labor Problem: Forced Labor

  • Indentured servants: (economic pressure) paid transportation for labor contract
  • Convicts: (punishment) virtually none came to Americas
  • Slave labor: (ultimate forced labor condition) started as contract labor, shifted to chattel slavery

3 Regions of U.S. Present

  • British North American Colonies, New England, Mid-Atlantic, Chesapeake

9/8 Novel England- Plymouth, Mass. Bay colony

  • Mid-Atlantic- New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania
  • Chesapeake- Virginia, Maryland
  • Other North American Colonial areas (British)- Caribbean Islands, Canada

Big Jam in Establishing British North American Colonies

  • Labor- demographics
  • Plymouth- microscopic family farmsà Labor pool matches farm size
  • Jamestown- good large scale farm land, no interested settlers (bad climate, etc)àno English labor pool
  • Caribbean- aristocratic absent owners of large plantationsàno English labor pool. Not living with consequences and social pressure matters for human behavior. We do not know what happened to Roanoke-Lost Island


, Virginia


  • 108 men-fortune, adventure
  • 1609-10 Starving time: Smith worked them at gunpoint; First colony
  • Bad Indian relations; Indians helped and then English just took

Brown Gold

  • John Rolfe and others introduce tobacco
  • Wildly popular in England- James I calls it a “noxious weed”- highly addictive
  • Proves to be financial making of Virginia (1617 20K pounds/ 1618 40K)
  • Plantation crop= leads to slavery (believe settler demographics, geographic situation
  • Mostly pipe tobacco

Pocahontas (Rebecca Rolfe)

  • No romance with Smith; he invented it to exaggerate his heroism
  • Married John Rolfe
  • Not a “princess”
  • Died of tuberculosis or pneumonia in 1617 after sons’ birth and buried in England

Chattel Slavery

  • Slave labor-started as contract labor, shifted to chattel slavery. 1619-20 Africans sold on labor contracts to Virginia planters
  • English had no provision for slavery in law. The 20 were fee following contract end. Most settled in Maryland and Virginia on their own small farms

New World


  • “chattel slavery”- lifelong, inheritable by children, human beings as property
  • How does this develop? Economic need, power, distance, what planters want, what they can force others to do
  • Distance from their acquire homes and communities (more settlers=less brutality and less slavery)

Why does Plymouth live in American memory as the “founding” station if Jamestown was first?

  • Association with Thanksgiving holiday
  • Efforts of descendants; Difficulties with Jamestown’s origins
  • A product of 19th century popular culture and schoolbooks
  • Resist immigration and for racial reasons

The Real Plymouth and its Real People

  • A separate colony until 1688
  • Settlers were “dissenting separatists” who called themselves “saints” who tried to live “ancient lives”—live by the Bible
  • Wanted to remove their children from the worldly corruption of England and Europe
  • 1620 “Mayflower” arrives in Plymouth harbor

Plymouth‘s culture

  • Family groups with a congregation
  • Not religious freedom but to be left alone to create their own religious community
  • Forbid other religious practices
  • Established institutions: Courts, schools, and churches

9/13 Colonizing North America: One War, Two Revolts, and a Witch Hunt

Bacon’s Rebellion (1676), King Phillip’s War (1676), the Pueblo Rvolt (1676, 1680), the Salem Witch Hunt of 1692

Caribbean Colonies

  • Absentee plantation owners, monoculture (sugar, rice, indigo), large slave populations
  • Essentially only two social classes. Overseer and manager “over class” and a slave class
  • Problem- fear of uprising, brutal environment
  • Islands constantly change hands over the centuries
  • Social economy (exchange) of power- want people afraid to do what they say but not too much brutality because then there is nothing to lose

New England Colonies

  • Families settle, strong religious communities, institutions developed, cramped farms and business with comparatively little forced labor of any sort-upper merchant class, vigorous middle class, emerging lower class of poor whites, Indians and slaves
  • Problem: a fear of secular inluences, fear of Indians as God’s “scourge”
  • Plymouth 1620, Mass. Bay Colony 1628, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations 1636

Chesapeake Colonies

  • Young men, monoculture (tobacco), developing plantation monoculture dependent on indentured servants and slave labor—upper class, very small “middle” class develops, large slave class and growing whites lower class mainly composed of former servants
  • Problem: fears of “lower sort” rebellion become reality with Bacon’s Rebellion in 1675-6. Permanent dread of slave rebellions
  • Chesapeake Expansion from 1607-1700. Tobacco prices fall from 1618-1710 because of more competition

Mid-Atlantic or Middle Colonies

  • Similar development to Recent England the colonies of NY, NJ, Pennsylvania—mixed type of communities (secular, religious), small farms, economic orientation of settlers within an agricultural framework but with a rising middle class in the port cities
  • Settled by a variety of northern European powers and immigrant groups (including: England, Sweden, Netherlands, France, Germany, Scotland)

1675-6 King Philips War: The Most Deadly War in American History

  • Indian tribes nearly extinguished in New England
  • English lost 25 towns and 10% population
  • The English won the war and wrote the histories
  • King Philip’s War effected Indian policy from the colonial periodà20th century shaped American Indian policy through 1850’s
  • John Sassamon, a “praying Indian” is murdered
  • 3 Wampanoags tried and executed
  • Sassamon as a symbol. To the English-the potential for conversion and “civilization.” To the Indians-the “treachery” of literacy
  • King Philip was the leader of a Confederation of tribes including Wampanoag and Narragansett
  • Philip was the baptismal Christian name of “Metacom” or “Metacomet
  • “King” was added to Philip’s name to insult his leadership
  • Should it be “Metacom’s War? “

1676 Bacon’s Rebellion-Virginia

  • Nathanial Bacon leads a “help country” uprising of settlers against the government
  • Issues: freed indentured servants are given unpleasant land on the frontier and the government wont let them “police” the Indians
  • Eventually the government prevails, Bacon dies of dysentery and farmers return to their lands

1675-80 the Pueblo Revolt: Santa Fe, Recent Mexico

  • Franciscan Mission provide frontier defense with their mission churches
  • Indians are forced labor (encomiendas)
  • 1675 drought, starvation, and no protection from Apache/Navajo raids lead to a revolt by Pueblo Indians
  • 43 Pueblos are whipped in public for practicing “old religious ways”
  • By 1675 approx. 20, 000 Indian converts from 50 missions in what is now Original Mexico and Arizona. Spanish colonies, Franciscan brothers.
  • By 1680 the Pueblos destroyed the Spanish colony, Franciscian brothers
  • By 1680 the pueblos destroyed the Spanish colony from Taos down the Rio Grande
  • 400 colonists, 21 Francicans killed

9/20 Salem Witchcraft-Myth and Reality

-How did Salem happen? What happened?

-Who caused it?

-Were people burned at the stake?

-How and why did it waste?

-How and why does Salem live on?

The Truth

  • Only 10 months of accusations, trials, and executions
  • 19 hanged, 1 man tortured to death
  • Over 200 arrested including a 4 year old. Accusations made not only by girls but adult women and men—14 women hanged—5 men.
  • Two dogs were hanged
  • Salem is not the normal witch hunt

Major Myths:

  • Jealous girls
  • Vicious lying neighbors
  • Encephalitis or other illnesses
  • Real witches or precise women practicing witchcraft

Puritans and Religion

A world of signs and wonders. Events (natural and human) were seen to be carrying a message from God. Witchcraft was a real fear—breaking the covenant with God to form one with the Devil. Salem’s witch hunt was not a product of bad people it was a reasonable response to events from a particular worldview.

Religious and Social Context of Witchcraft (Puritans and the Devil)

– Devil was a physical presence

– Devil could work through others to torment

– Devil allied with the “heathen” Indians

– Signing the Devil’s book in the woods

– Physical vulnerability of women makes more them more available to the Devil

Social tensions in Salem and Essex County

– Church divisions

– Long-standing property disputes

– Colonial political/ charter problems

– Frontier wars with the French and Indians

– These did not cause the trials but provided a context by providing events that required explanation

The Usual Suspects

Sarah Good hanged July 19, 1692. In response to try and get a confession, Sarah Beneficial called to the crowd: I am no more a witch than you are a wizard….Take away my life and God will give you blood to drink. Noyes (minister) died in 1701 from a hemorrhage—bleeding from the mouth

Confession, Faith, and Guilt

– Problem of confession when belief that you can be possessed against your will—some confessed because they believed they “might have done it.”

– Some confessed to place their possess lives, some refused to sin by confessing to what they knew they did not do

– Dilemma of “hindsight”—ascribing motives of our world to theirs

Community and Turmoil (reactions)

– Some protest the trials and arrests—NOT out of superior logic but because the rules of evidence were not being followed properly

– Cotton Mather did have problems with the trials but he also gave the government “cover” in his post-trials history of the events

There were real witches?

Folk magic and practices vs. witchcraft

– customs rooted in country ways

– ministers did not like them but ignored them

– no evidence “maleficium” was practiced

– astrology

– the invisible world

– signs and wonders

Failure of Leadership

Failure to follow established practiced

– medical/religious

– legal—”spectral evidence”

1692 Puritan Connecticut tried two witches

= no “hysteria”

= no guilty verdicts

The disagreement is in the behavior of the adult authorities

Failure of leadership: Parris and Mather

After the trials (1693-2001)

  • no significant witch trials ever in the colonies
  • Change in Puritan concepts of the Devil
  • Mass. Bay Colony gets new charter. Plymouth is brought into MBC. Puritans no longer have full authority.
  • Victims and families petition (sue) for restitution, restoration of reputation. Last name was cleared in 2001.
  • Myths come from: novels, poems, plays, movies “gothic” plot device “improved” by dramatic elements

The 1741 Negro Plot

  • The only legal execution by burning in US colonial or national history
  • 13 black men burned, 17 hanged
  • 70 sold to the Caribbean
  • 2 white men/ 2 white women hanged
  • 7 white men banished from NY colony

The Crucible—1950’s provides framework to comment on contemporary politics

History 2300 Notes for Test 2

Exam 2: October 20

From 1700-1815 (The Pre-Revolutionary period through the War of 1812)

Textbook chapters 3-9; Rockman “Welfare Reform in the Early Republic”

Format: Essay-take home 50%

In class-25% multiple choice/25% Bill of Rights (you will list all ten amendments)

9/27 European Competition for Europe: To 1763

  • France, Spain, England
  • Control of the Americas: economic and strategic benefits
  • The consume of warfare: colonial and European issues
  • The relationship of European powers with native inhabitants
  • The problem of “colonials” in the empire
  • The “shape” of the eastern part of No. America by 1763 and coming of Revolution
  • The legacy of the colonial era (France)

Life in the 18th century colonial world

  • Building stable societies
  • Home rule
  • The introduction of “genteel” society
  • The transatlantic nature of the colonies
  • Problems with the home government
  • Transformation of power in North America-British domination

New France

  • Jacques Cartier, 1534-42 explores Canada
  • Samuel de Champlain found Quebec 1608
  • (Quell bec= “what a nose” an exclamation made by Cartier about the terrain at Quebec)
  • Roman Catholic France official policy of conversion of Indians, intermarriage of fur trappers, merchants, soldiers with Indians VS. English policy of no racial “mixing” and private church efforts at conversion

King George’s War: 1740-48

  • New England and upper New York colonies are the frontiers of England and France
  • 1745 Battle of Louisburg (Nova Scotia). 4000 Current England colonists (167 killed). Over 7 week siege to take the fortress. 1748 Treaty gives the fortress befriend to France-New England’s British colonists resent this

The Seven Years War: OR the French and Indian War

  • 1756-1763 France and allied Indians vs. English (and their very few allies)
  • Young Major George Washington interested at Ft. Duquesne
  • Issue is English and expansion into French controlled Ohio River Valley
  • William Pitt promises that parliament would shoulder economic costs of war if colonists would raise sufficient troops- they raised more than 21, 000

Critical Moments and Issues

  • Colonists under the command of regular British officers do not like the discipline
  • “Arcadia”—(New Brunswick and Nova Scotia) taken by British and Arcadians sent into exile (“Arcadian”= “Cajun”)
  • Generals Montcalm (Fr.) and Wolfe (Eng.) meet in Quebec at the Plains of Abraham where both are killed and England takes Canada from the French
  • New France ceases to exist in the northern section of the North America
  • England dominates North America west of the Mississippi
  • Debt from the war and lingering resentments over its execution lead to conflicts that bring Revolution

The 1763 Proclamation Line

  • Defensible boundary
  • Indians west/English east
  • Unpopular with colonists
  • Cultural clash between colonists and countrymen beyond the legal issues
  • Cost of garrisons

Arcadians: “Cajun”

  • The French Regime (1534-1763) Canadian maritime provinces. 1763 Treaty of Seven Years War gives territory to English—8000 exiled
  • Restrictions on land ownership and voting
  • Large migration to French colonies on lower Mississippi River
  • Mythology of dispersal—fictionalizing the tragedy—serves as ethnic rallying point
  • “Evangeline” (1847) Longfellow

Traces of colonial Past(s)

  • Canada

Quebecois—dual language law. Louisiana—French law and culture

  • French Quarter. “Cajun” bayou
  • Arcadian settlement areas: Louisiana—crawfish with Tabasco for everyone

More than “Uses of History” but of the persistence of history

  • Community identity though the past
  • The “authenticity” of claims
  • Providing unity through the common
  • Reducing “heritage” to commerce

10/4 Aftermath of Seven Years War

  • Colonist’s attitude (mixed). Pride in victory over France. Resentment of treatment of militiamen during war. The Proclamation Line of 1763- restraint on migration west and land speculation
  • Home country attitude. Pride in victory over France. Resentment of the costs of overseas war. The Proclamation Line of 1763- cost of protection and threat to treaties. Government policies and the waste of “salutary neglect” of the colonies
  • Parliament’s Position- the Navigation Acts (the right of taxation)
  • Colonist’s Reaction- local control issues regarding taxes. “No taxation without representation” (virtual representation argument)

The Stamp Act, 1765 (vertical support)

Political Ideology: Enlightenment and Revolution

John Locke “Essay concerning human belief”

  • Ideas are not “born”within man but acquired by experience and reflection. “Reason” is supreme
  • God gave man intelligence in order to survive and to be able to reason out the world
  • People acquire governments under “social contracts” which allow them to savor the “natural rights” of life, liberty, and property.

Enlightenment and Deism: (Franklin and Jefferson)

God created a perfect universe and does not intervene in human affairs but leaves it to work on “natural laws”……so there is a belief that there is a God, but it certainly is not Christian

Sugar Act

“The American Revenue Act of 1764”

  • Two issues: Tax revenue and trade monopoly American ships buying from the French Indies denying British the lawful tax and trade of their colonies. Americans also making rum from molasses. Cut tax 50% but started to enforce the law

Stamp Act, 1765 Creating ‘vertical support’

  • Using goods for political purposes: Stamp Act Crisis of 1765 framed in colonies as a “conspiracy” against those “natural rights.” Ministers in New England abet the protests on the grounds of protecting: “the liberty with which Christ has made us free.” Thus, Locke’s Enlightenment ideas mixed with Christian ideas

Boston Massacre, 1770

  • Those who win the war write the histories and give the events their names
  • Demonstration: sailors, “idlers”, throw snowballs at British troops. Someone fires on the crowd. First martyr to Independence: escaped slave and mariner Crispus Attucks

Burning of the Gaspee, 1772

Jefferson: “the state of the otherwise minded”

  • Rhode Island declared before the Declaration was written- first “out” in May 1776 and last “in” the union in May 1790. British patrol boat grounds in Naragansett Bay. Rather than assist, Rhode Islanders set the boat on fire and refused to identify those involved

Boston Tea Party, 1773

Band of “Mohawks” dump tea overboard

(Reaction to Tea Act of 1773)

  • Protection of the British East India Tea Company through monopoly sales to colonies. Fear: of acceptance, of taxation rights through “luxury” items

First Continental Congress, 1774 (Philadelphia)

  • Reaction to “Coercive Acts” Mass. Calls for a secret meeting
  • “Continental Association” formed to organize boycotts and list grievances to petition the King
  • Issue: Rights as Englishmen were being violated. Later, John Adams would say: “The revolution was complete, In the minds of the people, and the Union of the colonies, before the war commenced.”

Boycotts, pamphlets, Committees of Correspondence

  • Power of print in a highly literate society- builds support, spread ideas
  • Economic protest- action all can purchase to resist economic actions of the government
  • “Circular letters” connect British colonies and coordinate protest actions and boycott

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

  • The general population taking action. “Sons of Liberty” enforced boycotts—sometimes brutally and arbitrarily. “Daughters of Liberty” political virtue through the manufacture of cloth (etc) at home and refusal to buy luxury goods and imported foods (tea)

The “Shooting War” begins

  • Battles of Lexington and Concord, April 1775. 700 British soldiers attempt to seize militia stores in the countryside. 273 British soldiers killed, 8 colonial militiamen. The “Redcoats” retreat to Boston chased by all the residents of the countryside
  • Battle of Bunker Hill, June 1775
  • Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation, 1775 (brings the south into the war). 800 African Americans (mainly enslaved) respond to first call. 20, 000 would join during the war on the British side. After the war British abandoned virtually all of them and most re-enslaved
  • The Declaration of Independence, 1776, provoked by:

1) British hire mercenaries “Hessians” to control population

2) Petitions to the kind for relief yield only more oppression

3) Thomas Paine “Common Sense” is published

Battle of Bunker Hill:

“A tale of great blunders heroically redeemed”

  • Idea of holding the heights (Charlestown and Porchester) when the British held Boston in June 1775
  • British Won
  • 1500 patriots- 500 lost. Retreated only when out of ammunition. General Warren killed in battle

Thomas Paine “Common Sense” 1776 pamphlet

“We have it in our power to begin the world again”

Print is important, spreads ideas about principles

Declaration of Independence:

July 4th: Date signed in Philadelphia

John Hancock, president of the Congress, warns that all “must hang together” and not splinter into factions.

“We must indeed all hang together, we most assuredly we will all hang separately.

Who fought the Revolutionary War?

The short-lived “rage militiamen”

  • Most radical patriots: Boston 1776: 1/3 pro, 1/3 con, 1/3 apathetic
  • “Civil War” as well as rebellion. At times everyone fought as the war came to them
  • Britain’s military superiority vs. poorly trained and funded local militias
  • 2.5 million British colonists—20% openly identified as “Loyalists.”

The 1st Rhode Island Regiment: African Americans and Revolution, 1777

  • No segregated units by law or custom. State paid owners and promised freedom to slaves for “good service” unit also had white and Indian soldiers. Fought with distinction at Newport, Red Bank, Saratoga, Yorktown until the end of the war

10/6 Where does architecture produce come from? What does it represent? What variety of places does it show up?

How to create unity? Through arts and architecture and physical world

“The Republic of Virtue”

Pillars of Montechillo based on Roman temple

555 foot high- Washington monument

Lincoln Memorial is the most famous. Arches narrate unity and democracy

Last major memorial monument- Vietnam War

Memorial, citizens individually recognized, 58, 000 people in all

Living items at memorial- started at Vietnam War memorial

Jefferson’s monument- Montechillo. He sold slaves to buy artwork

How did the Patriots win?

British– poor support from southern “tories”

Bad decision in 1781 at Yorktown. Unpopular war at home

Patriots– French alliance- saved Yorktown. Washington’s management of the military war. 5 % of the free white men between 16-45 had been killed in the war( equivalent to 14 million today)

  • We live in a democratic republic- not completely direct
  • Republic, Democratic- modern parties
  • Republic, democratic- the principles
  • Economy of Power- Washington understood this principle
  • Slaves got freedom for service
  • Yorktown is the moment when something broke; played Yankee Doodle to humiliate them

Benedict Arnold, Traitor

  • Negotiated with British to sell his command of the fort at West Point, NY in 1780
  • His British contact: Major John Andre captured and hanged
  • Arnold escaped and was commissioned in the British Army as a general
  • He was shunned
  • Used to be a hero in the Seven Years War

1785 Treaty of Paris: The Nation comes into Being

  • 1783 John Adams, John Jay, and Ben Franklin negotiators for the new Unites States of America
  • American Independence, evacuation of British soldiers
  • Set boundaries for the new US
  • Britain abandons its Native American allies, and, to a degree its loyalist colonials

After the War

Remaining Questions:

1) What kind of society the unique nation would have?

2) What sort of government would be formed?

3) What of the Indians who now lived within it?

4) What of the fate of slaves within a “free” nation

5) Vermont- only state without slavery

Creating the American Nation

Liberty: Who is free, what does it mean?

The creation of the political nation: the Constitution, Bill of Rights, Presidency

Establishing authority: Shay’s Rebellion (Massachusetts), the Whiskey Rebellion (Pennsylvania)

Liberty: not a simple idea
• Post- Revolutionary defining of “liberty”
• Everyone believes in it, but what is it? Revolutionary pamphlets, speeches, broadsides, men, women, servants, slaves
• Begins a struggle that is only partially fixed by laws

Liberty: who is a citizen: citizen is a concept

  • Under the law, only one class is a “citizen”
  • Voting is the key determinant

Defined slowly:

Independent: adult, free, property owning. Until 1820 in some states voting qualifications broad

– free black men and women with property

– white women with property

By 1820, citizenship for legal purposes: adult white men with sufficient property under the law (property value often miniscule)

Why does citizenship matter?

  • Voting
  • Legal standing- a citizen has rights; others have no rights
  • “Non citizens” have “virtual representation” until…

The Constitution

  • 1785. 25. May. The Federal Convention convenes in Philadelphia, although only seven states are represented
  • James Madison’s Virginia Plan: included a “tripartite” government which became part of the US Constitution. Sent to states in Sept. 1787 for ratification
  • 1790 Rhode Island ratifies last

10/11 Bill of Rights

  • Memory of colonial abuse of the people by government
  • The formation of a strong centralized federal government raised similar fears
  • Anger that individual rights (and restrictions on government) were not in the Constitution
  • George Washington urged Congress in his firs inaugural address to propose amendments that offered “a reverence for the characteristic rights of freemen and a regard for public harmony.”
  • Washington supported Bill of Rights in his first inaugural speech

Bill of Rights

  • Congress submitted amendments for the Constitution to the states for ratification
  • The Bill of Rights-à as they were called urged to protect the people from the power of government. Argument against: “Don’t worry everyone knows what your rights are!”
  • Biggest advocates- South Carolina and Rhode Island preferred to have what people “know” written down
  • Biggest opponents- Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Georgia ratified finally in 1939
  • Be able to list all ten amendments
  • 1st amendment: freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly
  • 2nd amendment: the fair to bear arms
  • 10th amendment: rights not specifically assigned to the federal government belong to the states.

The Presidency: Who would lead?

Powers? Title? King? Who would be first?

1787 called out of retirement to lead the Constitutional Convention—seen as only person to unite various sides. Served only two terms. Refused 3rd term on principle

George Washington: Patriot

  • 17 September 1796: Washington publishes his Farewell Address; it states his reasons for returning to private life and deciding not to run for a 3rd term as president
  • Beware of foreign entanglements
  • “excessive zeal” and “partisan politics”
  • Action v. Rhetoric: 1796-1799. Washington’s slaves-à “de facto” (by nature). Emancipation: retirement to Mt. Vernon. “De jure” (By law) emancipation: last will and testament. No “hand wringing” like Jefferson. Economic consequences to descendants.

The Stability of Government

  • Hamilton’s Plan for the financial stability of the nation to create it a commercial and military power. Credit-worthiness, national debt, national bank, tax on wine and coffee and tea and whiskey, and tax imported goods and subsidize v. industrial development

Shay’s Rebellion (Mass.): Liberty or License

  • 1786-7 Shay’s Rebellion in western Mass.
  • Economic depression after war: many of the farmers are veterans or kin of dead soldiers
  • Taxes about 1/3 of total annual income
  • Money devalued and inflation rampant
  • Farmers facing foreclosure march on court
  • 1000 militiamen confront 1500 farmers—4 killed

The Whiskey Rebellion (Pennsylvania): First test of government authority

  • 1794 Whiskey Rebellion breaks out in western Pennsylvania among farmers who oppose the collection of the tax on liquor and stills
  • Unfairness: taxation of distilled grain v. no tax on grain itself- distance to market issue
  • Washington’s symbolic ride: ordered 12, 000 troops to set down the tax rebellion. He rode out of the capital at the head of the army and then…fell back. Why? There is no more rebellion
  • 2000 farmers head for the Ohio Valley

10/13 Jefferson’s West National Expansion

  • Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1826
  • 1800 and 1804 elected President of the United States
  • Lewis and Clark (Corps of Discovery)

Jefferson‘s West:

  • The Northwest Territory raises novel questions:
  • States claims to western lands settled by 1802
  • Ordinance of 1785—surveying
  • The Northwest Ordinance

    • Established the principles of frontier settlement and admissions to the union
    • Promise of enough land for all
    • Established the precedent for banning slavery
    • But…no immediate effect…Indians controlled the territory

Northwest Ordinance of 1787:

  • Survey, determine administration and statehood terms, outlaw slavery
  • Territory—Statehood

    • Governor and judges appointed
    • 60,000 population in the territory
    • 5,000 adult (white) males in residence
    • Write a constitution and elect legislature
    • State constitution submitted to Congress

Jefferson’ West: The Lewis and Clark Expedition

  • The Northwest Territory 1785-1787
  • Surveyed for uniform townships
  • Provided for later divisions into states
  • 1802-1803 Louisiana Purchase
  • Jefferson’s “Empire of Liberty” free and virtuous people always expanding into available land
  • Napoleon’s plan for a New France over seas

    • Jefferson fears French plans for New France on the American border
  • Napoleon needs funds for European wars
  • “The Corps of Discovery”

    • Desire to know this newly acquired land
    • Trade opportunities
    • Trace the Missouri River to its source, catch water route to the Pacific (win NW passage)
    • Advance scientific knowledge
  • “Tall Tales”
  • Reports of vast Indians, soil too rich to grow tress, mountains of pure salt
  • Jefferson believes many—his enemies joke about his gullibility

Louisiana Purchase, 1803

  • Double size of nation
  • 15 million dollars

The Lewis and Clark Expedition

  • William Clark

    • Once Lewis’ superior officer
    • Second in Voice of expedition
  • Lt. Meriwether Lewis

    • Personal secretary to Jefferson
    • Commander of the expedition
    • Trained in botany, zoology, astronomy before trip

What they found

  • 300 miles of mountains between the Missouri and the Columbia Rivers…unlike anything they knew
  • Many novel Indian groups, unknown animals and plant species
  • Result: enormous interests in the West

The context…

  • Optimism and anticipation
  • Jefferson primary booster
  • The Corps of Discovery Diaries: Result of curiosity, creates curiosity

The Mammoth Craze

  • Started a fad of “biggest everything
  • Idea was about national pride and potential
  • “American Exceptionalism”

The Astronomical Cheese: “The greatest cheese in America for the greatest man in America”

  • Presented to President Jefferson, 1802
  • 1870 advert and 1940 memorial
  • Local Baptist supporters celebrating his support of religious freedom and political positions
  • They were both a political and religious minority—in the northeast
  • 900 cows: 4feet in diameter, 18 inches high and 1200 lbs.
  • Title given to the cheese meant to ridicule the givers and the recipient—the joke was on them.

American Exceptionalism

  • Anything was possible for the individual or the nation
  • Immune from the cycles of history
  • Idea that heaven’s special blessing given

10/18 War of 1812: Pride and Economics. National Sovereignty/ National Pride

  • British raids on American ships during Napoleonic Wars- “impressments” and interference with markets in the Caribbean
  • James Madison, President in 1812: feared British destruction of American trade, angered at failure to respect national sovereignty over neutrality
  • Economics: agricultural depression in the West (Kentucky, Ohio) and the south
  • 1812- National pride and economics. Napoleonic wars- US neutral. Caribbean dangerous with so many different European powers with different territories.
  • 1808- White House construction. The White House completed in 1814

The Burning of the White House

  • The attempt to “conquer” Canada- 1812-1814. Three campaigns to take Canada
  • Failure: Indian policy in the Northwest Territory alienated tribes, gave Canada an ally
  • The Burning of the White House. 1814 British invade the capitol- President Madison. Escapes into the Virginian Hills- Mrs. Madison. Escapes just ahead of British army with the Washington portrait and various items from the White House. British soldiers sit to eat, then burn it down. British capture and burn (August 1814).

Fort McHenry (September 1814) stopped British advance

  • Lawyer Francis Scott Key writes a poem about watching battle and waiting
  • Set to the tune of a British tavern song

January 8, 1815 Battle of New Orleans

Americans had advantage of height and crazy people

British: 11, 000- 14, 000. Americans: 4, 000- 6, 000

Casualties British: 2, 036 (700 killed). Americans: 71 (13 killed)

Treaty of Ghent: Dec. 24, 1814: Status quo ante bellum (state before the war)

  • Secured “title” to Louisiana Purchase
  • Stimulated the economy
  • No question about victories over British now
  • Fueled the idea about westward expansion (Manifest Destiny)
  • Rise of Jackson to national political plot (tied to last two: myth of the Kentucky Rifles).

Andrew Jackson: Hero of New Orleans and 7th President of US

  • Jackson the Planter. King Andrew the I. Responsible for Trail of Tears

The Hunters of Kentucky

  • Celebrates the victory at New Orleans

Elections of 1824 and 1828

  • Supporters portray Jackson as a Classical hero in images
  • Inaugural- the legendary “crush” of “common” people at the inaugural
  • First to steal the oath at New Capitol building
  • Best Friend was Sam Houston

The Rise of Jackson

  • “Age of Jackson” conventional for era from 1815-1830
  • Jackson lived 1767-1845
  • Market, Print Revolutions, rise of evangelical Protestantism= democracy
  • Jefferson’s thought of Jackson: “A man of violent passions and unfit for the presidency” according to Gordon Wood.

The Context

  • Cultural context: “the most enthusiastic democratic rhetoric that any modern country had experienced”
  • Jackson expressed and embodied the new vs. Jefferson’s ideas of equality and democracy created what he despised

Market and Industrial Revolution

  • Economic development Milestones, 1790-1830
  • 1792-96 epidemic Yellow Fever in Philadelphia: rise of the Port of NY
  • 1790 Samuel Slater, RI Textile Industry
  • 1793, Eli Whitney, Cotton Gin
  • 1807, Robert Fulton, Steamboat

History 2300 Notes for Test 3

10/25 Religious “innovations” in the early republic

  • Part of the idea of “liberty”
  • “Disestablishment” of official state churches by 1830. Means to get rid of or undo an established religion
  • Freedom to choose a religion, or none, to join and financially support

Explosive Growth of Religious Innovations

  • Revivals- emotional, enthusiastic
  • New religions- denominational splits and new movements
  • Context- the “revolutions” in the market, in print and in politics. Episcopal churches thought other churches were too passionate, concept they were mad. All of this was largely fueled by market revolutions and politics


  • “Mainline” denominations- Presbyterian, Anglican (Episcopal), Congregational seek membership decline. Bishops educated clergy all seen as restrictive
  • Evangelical denominations- Baptist, Methodist see membership rise. Ministers called to pulpit from faith, congregations resolve qualifications- attractive to post- Revolutionary generations

What Else Drives This Religious Energy

  • “Civic Religion”: belief in the nation and its divine guidance and its mission
  • Optimism of the people
  • The “republican” experiment merges with religious vision to gain “American exceptionalism”- the US is immune to the usual laws of the rise and descend of societies
  • New denominations often offer noteworthy to the marginalized- women, African Americans, the poor.

The Second Great Awakening, 1800-1820

  • Revivals from the Atlantic waft to the frontier of Kentucky and Ohio- attracted thousands
  • Doctrine is unnecessary when faith is a guide
  • Emotional experience and spiritual renewal
  • “Burned over district” people already converted.
  • Sunday school movement, foreign missions, domestic missions (frontier, cities).

Great Revival of 1801: Kane Ridge Kentucky

  • 10, 000 attend- 5 days of meetings
  • Circuit riders and the frontier
  • Most inviting thing within 1000 miles
  • See family, social event, dancing, joke telling, some quit for weeks

Religious Movements in early 1800s

  • Swedenborgian: direct spiritual intercession with God, belief the millennium is underway. Transatlantic movement
  • Mesmerism or Animal Magnetism: hypnosis. “align individual forces with universal ones”
  • Shakers: Mother Anna Leeà second coming of Christ on earth. 1772 migrated to America. Celibate in order to devote energy to serving God. Lived “plainly” and sought perfection in all things. 1840: 6, 000 members (Ohio-New England). Shakers believed things that made work easier was a good thing. Die out- not out trying to get converts and not bringing up own children. Useful innovations- shaker chair and common broom
  • Prophet Mathias: self-proclaimed messiah who ended in scandal and a murder trial. His community has only 10 members. The scandal helped establish the daily newspaper in NYC. View this because he was carpenter and had grand ideas about him. Definition of a cult. He decides all women in cult are his wife. One dies, Mathias charged with abolish, convicted, jail, wanders around
  • Mellerism: the millennium was at hand. Predicted in 1843 and 1844. The “disappointed”- nothing happened, poverty, people go insane. Split into 7th Day Adventist and later Jehovah’s Witnesses. No doctrine or a church, no converting, which is why they failed. In 1844, some sold farms, others did not plant. Does not endure, had deadline, no structure.


  • Spiritualism: 1848 upstate NY sisters Margaret and Kate Fox. Claims of communication with the dead. Accepted until the Civil War, especially among the grief-stricken and the “scientific.”

Quasi- religious reform movements

  • Perfectionalism: perfect the nation, perfect the self
  • Sylvester Graham: Dietary reform. The Graham Cracker
  • Hiram Thompson: medical reform. Thompsonianism. Prison and Asylum reform.
  • Phrenology: medical reform. The shape of the skull in the exposes character to the “reader.” Remnants of this still today.

10/27 Anti-Catholic or Anti-Popery

  • Pre-dates Revolution
  • Themes would appear in other “anti” campaigns (most notably “anti-Mormon”)
  • Threat of a religious state to liberty and freedom
  • Fear of “foreign” influences (Pope)

Census numbers Roman Catholics

  • 1776 20, 000 (less than ½ of population)
  • 1850 1, 088, 000 (about 13% of population)
  • Not going to ask these numbers on any tests
  • This growth makes people anxious

“Anti” Campaigns

  • Ridicule- make fun of
  • Demonization- say they are evil
  • Set a group or person outside “normal”

“Right Panics” and Political Manipulation

  • Most of the “popular riots” are driven from above
  • Workers are told immigrants a threat
  • Whites are told Blacks are a threat
  • Protestants are told Catholics (or Mormons) are a threat
  • Ask: Who benefits?
  • Who is preaching, writing newspapers, putting up signs
  • Anti-Convent Literature 1830-1865. Young girl in convent, worked to death, sent back to family to die. Other fable, beautiful girl in convent, priest takes advantage of her
  • The mystery of the convent is the “unnaturalness” of celibacy

The Awful Disclosures of Maria Monk

  • 1836: 26, 000 copies. 1860: 300, 000 copies
  • Like Rebecca Reed of Charlestown, a convert to Catholicism who entered a convent
  • Claims of illicit sex, illegitimate births, and execute on “Nun Island” in Canada
  • Newspaperman William Stone investigates: Calls it a “fraud”
  • Her later book fails, her pregnancy and instability discredits her with all but the “fanatics”—dies 1839 in NY Almshouse
  • Books mainly a market for men

Charlestown Convent Fire: Anti-Catholic Boston

  • August 1834
  • Not a “lower class” riot (economics)
  • No theft, no assaults
  • Firemen (middle class) involved (religion)
  • Convent and school burned
  • Newspapers and local sermons. Lyman Beecher’s campaign. General “anti-popery” atmosphere. Rumors of “abuse” of novice nuns
  • Middle class riot about religion
  • About going in and saving young women
  • The threat to school: fights over Bible reading (1840s)

Tools of anti-Mormon propaganda

  • Playing on long-standing cultural fears
  • Defining the group as “alien” “foreign”
  • Inciting “moral panics”
  • Simple ridicule

Irony of the “anti-Mormon” campaign

  • First truly American religion that “sacrileges” the American soil itself by placing Jesus Christ on its landscape

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons)

  • Church founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith. Smith is from the ‘burnt-over district’ of NY
  • Joseph Smith reveals in 1830 that God had shown him golden plates containing the Book of Mormon
  • 1831 the Church is formed
  • LDS moves from NY-Ohio-Missouri-Illinois-Iowa-Utah territory between 1831 and 1847. 1833 Missouri “extermination” order
  • Polygamy is revealed in 1840s to faithful
  • Joseph Smith is assassinated in Illinois 1844. Brigham Young takes leadership
  • Name Mormon comes from “enemies”

Reasons for Opposition

  • Competition with other “Protestant” groups for modern converts
  • Drawing converts from the ranks of existing mainstream Protestant churches
  • The Church endured/prospered


  • Why prosper?
  • Building community and institutions
  • Doctrine defines church and members—faith is specific
  • Emphasis on conversion
  • Aided by Utah isolation after 1847 to strengthen the faith community

Anti-Mormon Campaigns: Recurring themes

  • “Old fashioned” or “alien”—tolerance not extended
  • Cast as a “secret” religion creating “conspiracies” against the nation
  • Polygamy: “moral panics” incited when statehood applications made
  • Linked slavery and dangerous loss of individual will- “kings and popes”

Themes of Anti-Mormonism

  • Secretiveness and evil through association
  • Illustrating “difference”
  • Loss of will and brutality
  • The “Mormon Tragedy”
  • Theme of older and younger wives
  • The “Mormon Comedy”


  • Anti campaigns focus on maximizing and redirecting anger of large categories
  • Idea of a threat to livelihood or status
  • Idea of a threat to morals
  • Idea of a threat to individual liberty
  • 19th century campaigns often fueled by the press and the pulpit

11/3 Questions raises by the Alamo

  • A defeat as an iconic “American” event?
  • Fighting for “American rights? “
  • What is heroism and who is a hero?
  • The strange disappearance of Seguin and the Tejanos
  • The life of the Alamo in popular culture
  • Alamo is a chapel, holy site

Manifest Destiny: The West and the American Imagination

  • 1607, 1620: Into the Atlantic
  • 1763: Proclamation Line
  • Jefferson: “Empire of Liberty”
  • Lewis and Clark, journal publication popular
  • Other popular non-fiction: Geographies, Daniel Boone’s biography (later: Davy Crocket, Kit Carson)
  • 1835: John O’Sullivan coins a name for this: “Manifest Destiny”
  • Texas Rebellion. “Thirteen Days of Glory”: The Alamo, the west, and American Identity

Becoming Mexican

  • Impresario Moses Austin and 300 families permitted to resolve in 1820 (Missouri). They became Mexicans
  • 1824 son Stephen carries project forward with 272 colonists
  • By 1830, 16, 000 Americans immigrated or born
  • Conditions for land grants: Citizenship, Conversion to Roman Catholicism

Asserting “American” Rights

  • By 1830 recent immigrants have 4 to 1 ratio
  • Many refused to honor conditions of land grants
  • Mexican governments tries to regain control of the region-reaffirms ban on slavery
  • 1832 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna becomes president. 1834 dictator
  • 1835, goal of “American” colonists: independent statehood within Mexico
  • Specifically: a return to the 1824 Constitution. Issue is slavery

1835: From Skirmishes to Revolt

  • 1835- 300 plus men of the “Texas Army” capture San Antonio military Headquarters
  • Santa Anna himself with 7000 men marches north to crush the revolt
  • Houston ordered the town abandoned
  • 150 led by Travis, Bowie, and Crockett remain at the former mission
  • Desire to go back to 1820 Constitution which says “free slavery”


  • Demand a Texas area within Mexico
  • Return to the Constitution of 1824 (slavery)
  • March 2 or 3, 1836 Independence declared

Goliad- March 19, 1836

  • 342 executed so soon after the Alamo defeat provoked “The Runaway Scrape” (settlers flight to Louisiana)
  • Santa Anna had promised prisoner status in exchange for surrender
  • Col. Dimmitt’s “Bloody Arm Flag”

San Jacinto- April 21, 1836

General Sam’s army went to the battle with wail “Remember the Alamo.” “Remember the Goliad”. 800 Texians roared into the Mexican Army camp at San Jacinto: 650 Mexican soldiers killed and 700 Mexican soldiers captured. Most importantly: President-General Santa Anna captured and there is no question of victory

Sam Houston (1793-1863): President, Slaveholder, Senator, Revolutionary

  • 1820s with Jackson in Tennessee- Congressman, Governor
  • 1830s Texas- commander of the Army, President, Senator, Governor
  • Slaveholder, who opposed extension into new areas, opposed CSA. Removed in 1861; Died in Huntsville in 1863

Juan Seguin: Mayor of San Antonio, landowner, Revolutionary, Patriot

  • Sent out of the Alamo for reinforcements
  • Fought at San Jacinto
  • Accused of treason in 1842 by the Mexican commander he just defeated
  • Vigilantes force his family out
  • Prison or a commission in Mexican Army
  • Died in Nuevo Laredo (Mx.) in 1890

Reluctant Republic of Texas (1839 official flag of the Republic-later of place)

  • The desire post-Independence was US statehood
  • The 1830s and 1840s were hostile times for admission of a slave state
  • An additional problem was the Roman Catholic population
  • Texas is forces to become an Independent Republic
  • Consequences of nationhood
  • 1845 annexation (deathbed cause of Andrew Jackson) receives favorable terms
  • The right of Texas flag to be the only state flag to fly at the same level of the US flag is an urban anecdote. NOT TRUE
  • “Texas exceptionalism”- Texas is different

11/8Thirteen Days of Glory”

  • Col. William B. Travis and around 180 something men vs. Mexican President Santa Anna and 5000 men (1550 Mexican Army dead, 8:1 ratio)
  • 13 day siege with a final battle on March 6, 1836 ending in death for all Texian defenders…how did they die? How are they remembered?
  • ‘Texans like their historical myths’ said by Don Carleton

Typical website description

  • On March 2, 1836 during the siege of the Alamo, Texas independence declared. Four days later, document signed with blood shed at the Alamo. Fable formed due to lack of information (how the Alamo went). Later eyewitnesses account found. The status to “buy and burn” the diary of a Mexican soldier.

Feb. 24th Letter to Texians

  • I shall never surrender. I call on you in the name of everything dear to Americans, to come to aid with dispatch.
  • Alamo is iconic time because of letter

William Barrett Travis (1809-36) Bankrupt, abandoned family, patriot

  • Attorney with Austin land grant
  • Commander of the Alamo
  • Tradition: died in battle, go down swinging
  • What is the eyewitness report? Travis fought like a “true soldier.” This is from a commander saluting his enemy

Jim Bowie

  • The 1960 “death scene and the 1836 man slave trader, “confidence man”, patriot
  • He runs out of ammunition and still kills with Bowie knife
  • Travis died like a women hidden by covers, says eyewitness reports

David Crockett frontiersman, congressman, patriot

  • “You can all go to hell, I am going to Texas.”
  • Drinking, swearing, dipping, killing
  • Reputation from frontier biography
  • Becomes the Alamo guy

Eyewitness version of Dave’s Death

  • Named as captured. Only 7 men survived and captured. Tortured and killed.

The Myth Version

  • Beating multiple soldiers with empty guns. “Coonskin cap” craze- Disney movie event started this.

Random crap

  • 1824 Constitution and slavery- center of independence from Mexico
  • Labor system and Social System. Slavery is not an abstract issue
  • Very important: At the end of the Civil War, 4 million men, women, and children are free. Not all of these people become citizens in a legal sense. They had to make people Americans because they did not exist before. Before Civil War, they had social death.


  • Old World Slavery: Romans, Anglo-Americans, Americans, etc. War captives and debtors. Freedom available by many means. Children born free
  • New World Chattel: For life, family born slaves, not a citizen or person

Slavery in the Americas

  • 6 weeks to 3 months as cargo
  • Estimated that between 30 and 60 million Africans were captured and enslaved
  • 1/3 survived the trip to Americas
  • Varieties of shackles used by slavers
  • “Sometimes all on the ship were plain”
  • Sales in markets: Wash the filth off, present healthy glow, hide wounds

11/15 Liberty and Slavery: Why the Revolution didn’t matter much

  • How “liberty” is defined-legal/political/social. South-slavery looks to be ending due to decline of tobacco prices and multi-crop/livestock farms
  • North-gradual manumission schemes start. Urbanization/industrialization. European ideas about “humanitarianism” turn against slavery. Evangelical revivals.
  • Why do we have a civil war? Tariffs, economics, cultural differences, structural differences, bottom of the list is slavery

The Cotton Kingdom: The Revival of Slavery 1830-60

  • Migration into the “Old Southwest” (Mississippi, Missouri, Alabama, etc). Strain of cotton cultivated
  • Cotton-mills of the northeast/Europe wealth to the north and south increases need for slaves

Slave Rebellions: The greatest fear

  • 1822 Denmark Vesey- So. Carolina. Discovered before it started, 35 hanged
  • 1831 Nat Turner- Virginia. 60 whites dead in raids, 100 free Sad and slaves dumb in “suppression” (16 hang)
  • Turner’s confession: religious vision “Thunder rolled in the heavens, and blood flowed in streams.”
  • Religious Abolition efforts: Jonathan Edwards in 1798 and Sunday School Union Tract

Slave Narratives

  • (1850) The Legend of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave
  • (1845) The Autobiography of Frederick Douglass

Underground Railroad: Escape routes for c. 100, 000 slaves

  • Routes to free states and Canada, 1817-1861
  • Escaping slaves hidden by abolition minded whites and free blacks
  • Harriet Tubman: Symbol of the URR in the North. “When the Sun comes back and the first quall calls, follow the drinking gourd. For the old man is awaiting for to carry you to freedom, if you follow the drinking gourd.”

Political Movements and Print

  • “The liberator” edited by William Lloyd Garrison (1831)
  • New England Anti-Slavery Society (1832). Extreme abolitionism.” I will not speak, think, or write with moderation.” Garrison thought slavery should end immediately

1836 “Gag Rule”

  • Abolition petitions to Congress “tabled”
  • 1837 Rev. Lovejoy is murdered in Illinois

Creating a Sympathetic North

  • (1852) Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriett Beecher Stowe
  • Humanizes slaves, dramatizes brutality, banned in most slave states
  • Eliza ‘sol south’ runs with her child: Escape over the frozen Ohio River. Based on a true story from Ohio URR operator John Rankin

“Free Soil” parties

  • “free soil for free men”: did not want slavery locally, but not much concern about the institution
  • Concern about economic competition (very strong in the mid-west)

Popular Sovereignty vs. Constitutionalism

  • Popular Sovereignty (Northern View) correct of citizens to settle status of slavery
  • Constitutionalism (Southern View). Constitution allows slavery

1848 Mexican War ends

  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: NM and California for 15 million. Rio Grande becomes border

Compromise of 1850

  • California enters as a free state
  • NM and Utah made territories with popular sovereignty to choose their status as states
  • Slave trade in Washington, DC ended
  • Fugitive Slave Law strengthened
  • NO one is happy

“Bleeding Kansas” 1854

  • “Rehearsal for the Civil War”
  • New England Immigrant Aide Society- try to fill territory with abolitionist settlers
  • Majority were “free soil” settlers
  • Missouri immigrants-try to possess territory with pro-slavery settlers
  • 1858 Kansas enters as free state

May 22, 1856: The canning of Senator Summer

  • Summer nearly killed
  • Significance: Ends the era of “accommodation” in the Senate

Dred Scott Decision of 1857

  • The fate of a slave taken into free state or territory-becomes free?
  • Supreme Court decides that the framers never meant citizenship to extend to black men (slave or free). Key to plan the 14th amendment
  • Scott stays a slave- Northern states inflamed

Harper’s Ferry, 1859

  • John Brown attempts to incite a slave uprising in Virginia (now West Virginia)
  • Funding and assistance
  • Attempted pick of the federal arsenal
  • Captured and executed
  • “A misguided fanatic” A. Lincoln. “Blood thirsty murderer” J. Davis. “19th century Christ” RW Emerson

Two Nations

  • 1860 election results and reaction
  • Succession of S. Carolina in December
  • Creation of Confederate States of America (CSA) in 1861
  • Issue of “nationhood”
  • Texas succeeds in February. 1861 joins CSA. Sam Houston argues strongly against it. Houston urges to an independent republic for Texas
  • Ft. Sumter, SC fired upon in 1861. NOW, the Civil War is inevitable

11/29 the Civil War (1861-65)

“I would like to glance truthful history written.” U. Grant in Yarn of 1885

Attitudes during the war

  • Contention, North is not unified
  • Good Friday, April 14, 1865- Lincoln’s assassination
  • Public grief- engravings of the death scene-12 day funeral train procession
  • Walt Whitman’s poems about Lincoln

Association: Devil and CSA

  • Contrast to God’s “protection” of USA. Northern Press and War’s End. Jefferson Davis’ escape- dressed as a woman without even shaving

Prisoners of War: USA prisons. The Victor’s Story

  • More supplies- more food
  • Distance from battlefield- POW not in danger
  • Nearness to civilians…shaping perceptions. Limits to what you can rationalize when everyone is so close

Ft. Sumter Andersonville: first battle for public opinion
• 22 US colored troops killed (mainly Mass 54th)
• 13, 000 total USA prisoners
• Definition of southern depravity
• As mighty as 100 died each day

Andersonville, Georgia. July 1864

  • 33, 000 people in 26 acres. The most was 45, 000
  • People 12 years-very old who guarded the prison

Andersonville National Cemetery: CSA

  • Clara Barton
  • Dorence Atwater, prisoner who smuggled out a list of the dead
  • Accounted for all of the 13, 000 but 460
  • “Unknown Union Soldier”

Andersonville (CSA)

  • 14 months operating
  • Died from disease, malnutrition, poor sanitation, and exposure
  • Who was there? Enlisted men and white officers who lead black regiments
  • Andersonville Captain Wirz was executed November of 1865

Race and Reconstruction or the status quo antebellum (state before the war)

  • The emancipationist view: Remembering and equality-mean meet men and who cares about race
  • Reconciliationist view: Greeley’s “hands across the bloody chasm.” Nast’s view of the campaign theme 1872 move on

Decoration Day/ Memorial Day: Remembering and Forgetting

  • May 1, 1865 Charleston, South Carolina. 10, 000 African Americans at the sites of unmarked Union graves
  • NOT 1866 by Ladies Memorial Association in local cemeteries of Southern towns
  • NOT in 1866 in New York or Pennsylvania
  • These stories are false and simply made up to perform people feel better

June 1870: Middle Class Holiday

  • Rural cemetery movement, Union grief for Lincoln, Nationalist overtones, Cult of Sentimentality

Representing Race: Yes symbols matter

  • Brutal physical stereotypes mark campaigns- north and south
  • Representations: alienate sympathy and replace it with fear
  • Extra-legal methods and their rationales. 4 million slaves were freed because of the Civil War
  • Phrenology and Racial Stereotypes: the views from the north. Must follow facial features of whites and blacks
  • “Freedman’s Bureau”: Shameful racial stereotyping in election campaigns

Myths of Reconstruction: The “ignorant” Black elected official

  • 1870, Hiram Revels (Miss.)- first black US senator- born free, college educated, ordained minister

Social Control: view from South

  • Establishment of KKK 1865 Pulaski, Tennessee. Resist Congressional Reconstruction
  • Local opposition: Wealthy whites far federal reaction (Nathan Bedford Forrest denounces lack of “honor” in 1869)
  • NOT a “awful white” movement

Those hoods…

  • Increases fright, decreases ambushes, standardized in 1920’s
  • Explanations: Inquisition executioner, Crusaders, “Ghosts” of CSA dead, White purity, Red CSA blood
  • 1868: warnings to “carpetbaggers” and “scalawags”
  • 1870: Harper’s View

KKK: Fighting the Modern

  • 1915 “second KKK”- cross burners
  • Uses mass media
  • Targets: race, religion, immorality
  • Social dimensions and organizations

12/1 Radical Republicans: Punish the south, end slavery

  • 4 million “new” Americans assuring that “emancipation” is liberty. Harsh terms for re-admittance to the Union- military districts until 1877

Constitutional Amendments

  • 13th -ends slavery. Formally constitionalizes position of abolitionists
  • 14th– provides federal citizenship. Access to federal courts, benefits all
  • 15th– suffrage for Black men. Nearly universal male voting rights
  • Problem: Enforcement

Impeachment of Johnson, 1868

Radical Republicans in Congress furious because:

  • No enforcement of voting rights of newly freed
  • White governments filled with former CSA leaders
  • No federal opposition to Black codes

State and Local Law: Social and Economic Control

  • Labor contracts/Sharecropping
  • Black codes- control freedmen and women, provide labor. No labor contract? Arrested as a “vagrant.”
  • Jim Crow 1870s-1880s racial segregation statutes at the state level
  • Criminalize unemployment

“Redeemer” Governments and the extinguish of Reconstruction

  • Return of power to traditional forms
  • Compromise after 1877 election. Hayes wins: military leaves the southern states
  • Overturn of federal law by non-enforcement and creation of state laws

1913: “A quarrel forgotten” Pres of Us, Woodrow Wilson

  • Blue and gray reunions (1880s-1938)
  • (1913) 55, 000 attend 50th anniversary of Battle of Gettysburg
  • (1938) 22, 000 back 75th anniversary
  • 99.9% white

Where are the Black veterans? Like Sgt. William Carney, Medal of Honor

  • No significant number of Black Confederate veterans
  • 180, 000 served in uniform for USA in segregated regiments
  • Not included in most parades and reunions
  • Legal and social segregation
  • 54th Mass. – show unit. Prove that black troops are useful

“The New South”

  • Henry Grady, 1886 speech to New England Society of Unusual York
  • Economic growth (wants industrial South). 8000 miles RR track, seeking investors. Cotton weaving mills (400% increase by 1900). Exploitive labor practicesà N.E. declines
  • Race relations had changed after war. Cotton mills mostly white operators. Race threats used to control white workers (sound familiar? N.E. mills and immigrants)

The Cultural Life of the “Lost Cause”

  • “Lee Cult”—1890 memorial
  • “Gone with the Wind”
  • The second battle for public opinion
  • 1880s onward-memorialization
  • Reframing defeat-“honor” (Lee cult)
  • Reframing the war’s cause. Ordeal, Revival and Triumph
  • Reinforced by ritual, sentiment, and agreement
  • Directs enrage and grief, provides unity and sense of control
  • Who is a citizen? A legal status. Only a citizen if adult white male. This is before the war.

Amendment I: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
Amendment II: A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and gain arms, shall not be infringed.
Amendment III: No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Amendment IV: The right of the people to be obtain in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Amendment V: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice establish in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
Amendment VI: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall devour the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
Amendment VII: In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the apt of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Amendment VIII: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Amendment IX: The enumeration in the Constitution, of clear rights, shall not be construed to say or disparage others retained by the people.
Amendment X: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

Amendment I: Freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly.
Amendment II: The right to bear arms.
Amendment III: No soldier shall stay in a house without the consent of the owner.
Amendment IV: People should be secure in their personal items and only searched upon probable cause.
Amendment V: All citizens are innocent until proven guilty. None shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; private property can not be taken for public consume without compensation.
Amendment VI: the accused has the right to a speedily and public trial, by an impartial jury. The accused may have witnesses and assistance from his council.
Amendment VII: The right of trial by jury shall be preserved.
Amendment VIII: No excessive bail or fines, and no cruel and unusual punishments.
Amendment IX: The report of the Constitution shall not be reworded to deny people’s rights.
Amendment X: Rights not specifically assigned to the federal government belong to the states.

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